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Group Means, Non-Student Sample: JPSP (2002)

GroupMeans2002St1nonstudents.sav (4.4KB)

October 4, 2012 (11:23 am EST)


A model of (often mixed) stereotype content: Competence and warmth respectively follow from perceived status and competition

Susan Fiske, Princeton University

Amy Cuddy, Princeton University

Peter Glick, Lawrence University

Jun Xu, University of California, Los Angeles

National Science Foundation, 94-21480

National Institutes of Health, HD33044

Numeric/quantitative (rating scales, checkboxes, etc.)


Massachusetts, United States

Wisconsin, United States

Illinois, United States

Florida, United States

September 15, 1998, throughApril 30, 1999

Home and classroom questionnaires

Nonrandom sample

Approved by IRB or ethics board

  • Psychology
    • Social psychology

Stereotype research emphasizes systematic processes over seemingly arbitrary contents, but content also may prove systematic. On the basis of stereotypes’ intergroup functions, the stereotype content model hypothesizes that (a) 2 primary dimensions are competence and warmth, (b) frequent mixed clusters combine high warmth with low competence (paternalistic) or high competence with low warmth (envious), and (c) distinct emotions (pity, envy, admiration, contempt) differentiate the 4 competence–warmth combinations. Stereotypically, (d) status predicts high competence, and competition predicts low warmth. Nine varied samples rated gender, ethnicity, race, class, age, and disability out-groups. Contrary to antipathy models, 2 dimensions mattered, and many stereotypes were mixed, either pitying (low competence, high warmth subordinates) or envying (high competence, low warmth competitors). Stereotypically, status predicted competence, and competition predicted low warmth.

Stereotyping, Social Cognition, Gender, Ethnicity